Heat Pumps: the Future of Home Heating

2021-ж., 28-фев.
1 062 902 Көрүүлөр

It's so cold that it's hot.
Part 2: kgworld.info/wiki/video/m96pqZCSaKeDtqk
I referenced a lot of old videos in this one. Here they are, in clickity linkity form!
Chest Freezers; What they tell us about designing for X
Old-fashioned rice cookers are extremely clever
Reusable handwarmers that get hot by freezing
I also made passing references to
Forced-air Furnaces: The What, Why, and How
Portable Air Conditioners - Why you shouldn't like them

Technology Connextras (the second channel that stuff goes on sometimes):
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The TC Subreddit
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  • Hello! Here's a comment with some extra info on efficiency and the metering devices used in heat pumps. First: my wording on the efficiency drop in the cold was sloppy, and it sounds like I'm suggesting the need for defrosting is the only reason it loses efficiency. It is _a_ reason, but not the biggest one - that's simply that as the outdoor temperature gets colder, it's harder for the refrigerant to absorb heat because the temperature difference between it and the air gets smaller. In fact, in the clip when it was -10°, it wasn't building much frost at all because it was very dry. But that was so cold that the refrigerant could barely capture any energy, which is why its output was tepid. And to be clear, its rating down to 5° doesn't mean it operates at full efficiency at that temperature. That's just the lowest temperature that it can sustain its rated heating output. Re: metering devices. I still somewhat suspect that the mini-split has a capillary tube and largely because of its cost. It was surprisingly inexpensive (this unit was about $1000, but the smallest units from this same manufacture only cost $750 and are fully capable heat pumps). If you use a thermal expansion valve or similar, you need one for each direction which adds to the system's complexity somewhat. I'd still argue that it hardly does - it is, after all, one or two small components of a large system. But simply reversing the refrigerant flow doesn't work on its own in systems that use these more complex metering devices. They'd need some additional piping and valve work (some such valves were visible in the demo rig) to accommodate two metering devices for each direction of flow.

    Technology ConnectionsTechnology ConnectionsАй мурун
    • I was super surprised when I first moved to Japan and EVERY air conditioner was also a heater.

      Jason DolphJason Dolph7 күн мурун
    • @melskunk central heating is a big system where water is heated by power plant or similar building that is built specifically for it. Then this water travels via pipes to houses and goes through radiators, cooling down and heating up rooms.

      LTVALTVA9 күн мурун
    • @LTVA wait what is the difference between a furnace and central heating? We call our home furnace our central heating

      melskunkmelskunk10 күн мурун
    • Could you turn a window AC to be outside and heat your house or room technically?

      Ethan NicholsEthan Nichols10 күн мурун
    • Our company It is a scientific and technological enterprise specializing in the R & D, production, sales and service of solar energy, air source heat pump hot water, heating and refrigeration engineering systems. It is the development and cooperation unit of Zhejiang Energy Research Institute - new energy source. The company won the title of Hangzhou high-tech enterprise in 2010 and ultra-low in 2011 The warm air source heat pump unit project won the national science and technology small and medium-sized enterprise innovation fund project award, and won the new industrial product award of Zhejiang Province. Also we want to find some partners or agents,If you are interested, we can communicate this matter。my e-mail: fexur@foxmail.com

      汪波汪波10 күн мурун
  • Heat pumps have been around for a while they just suck a lot of power. One of my favorite devices, happens to be a camper fridge, the ones that run on propane or electric, ac, or dc. Basically there's no compressor, I think the freon is ammonia based, but all you have to do is just heat up this canister in the back of it. As you heat the canister in the back, it creates cold inside the fridge. That means you could literally light a wood fire behind this thing, and it'd get cold. That's how they get away with making it run on propane, the propane will heat the tank, they have a water heater type element around it, that will heat it with 120 volt AC, and they have a 12 volt element, that will also heat it with 12 volt.

    Heather JenniferHeather Jennifer3 саат мурун
  • Hmmm....I used to have one. Granted it was a few years ago though. If it got below 2 degrees C the heat was useless. Living in Canada we had 4 months of cold and the pump was a waste of energy. Unless they've changed the efficiency of newer models I would never bother with one.

    EgastapEgastap7 саат мурун
  • You have no idea how much joy your videos bring me.

    wolfos atarwolfos atar9 саат мурун
  • very nicely done video. however, as the current technolgy goes, an air to air heat pump only makes sense in a mild climate. THEY CANNOT HANDLE BITTER COLD. FORGET IT. ground source heat pumps are a good optiion in the far north, i bet. i hope. MOTHER NATURE ALWAYS SAYS "NO". things may improve, as technology advances. SLOWLY. lets be really careful not to be idealidtic. WE HAVE NOT YET ESCAPED THE NEED FOR FOSSILE FUELS IN COLD CLIMATES. be real. be honest. thx this video is a wonderful science lesson and im grateful. cheers!

    Kamlin KilgroeKamlin Kilgroe16 саат мурун
  • ---!!! it's like how plant roots absorb nutrients---!!!!!!

    JoyJoyКүн мурун
  • So its an LED traffic light?

    Rev_dudeRev_dudeКүн мурун
  • heat pumps really suck, Especially those mini splits. they dont do either heat or cool to well, they just exist. as a service tech I run into customers who have nothing good to say about heat pumps everytime.

    Past'uhPast'uhКүн мурун
  • Hum, well why don't you run the back up strip heat in defrost and there won't be any cold air coming out after defrost.

    BigBad JohnBigBad JohnКүн мурун
  • Great video brother! Quick note on 14:59 - The metering device on a MS is usually a capillary tube unless it’s more efficient and then you would have a thermal expansion valve of some kind or electronic expansion valve. However they are not located in the indoor unit they are actually located outside on most occasions.

    ApolloApollo2 күн мурун
  • As far as I know the metering device in minisplits are in the outdoor unit.

    O!TechnologyO!Technology2 күн мурун
  • Would you be willing to expirement using a generator for the power source and use a heat pump window unit vs a quartz infrared space heater and show us the results?

    lostc0zlostc0z2 күн мурун
  • Haha dope B roll hahaha

    Nicholas JonesNicholas Jones2 күн мурун
  • It sounds like you're saying that a heat pump produces a over-unity for heating. Are you saying that the power plant miles away burning natural gas is more efficient than heating with a fireplace or natural gas furnace on site. Isn't their loss in powerlines and conversion losses from burning gas to boil water to turn a turbine heck they have to pump the water to boil how much energy was used for that? A gas furnace is using a blower motor for it's electric needs but a heat pump is using that plus a compressor several sensors and electronics. Let me tell you what savings you'll have with a heat pump water heater. None. Upfront cost - High, Plumber - High, + now you need a HVAC Tech - High, It affects your homes heating system costing you more, needs a drain for condensation. It falls into regular resistance heating with heavy usage or everytime it needs service and Techs are so expensive no one gets it serviced so shame on owners for not maintaining it. It works on paper not in reality. High Maintenance costs are the problem with technology and only the rich enjoy these impractical clown engineered devices. Most improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency came from weight reduction and turbochargers. A drop of fuel will always contain the same amount of power as it did 50 years ago and probably 50 years from now.

    lostc0zlostc0z3 күн мурун
  • 147 degrees C out of an air con unit inside the house'? could fry food on that o.O lived and worked in Greece for 5 years previously, all air con out there (UK origin, no aircon), pretty sure around 30 was normal on the units?

    B00rishB00rish3 күн мурун
  • I’ll just grab some uranium for heat.

    SmoothMechanicSmoothMechanic3 күн мурун
  • I have 2 indoor units and 1 outdoor. What happens when I set one of my indoor to heating and one to cooling?

    DAN8137DAN81374 күн мурун
  • Heck, I had reversible ones in Malta. That gets never below zero as a result of a very large moat (it's an island), but when it's 10ºC outside you're very happy they cam reverse their summertime job (where it can go from 23ºC night time to > 35ºC as soon as the sun goes up).. Nice article, and sensible logic. Thanks for this.

    Freddo FlintstonoFreddo Flintstono4 күн мурун
  • Wehad one in Minnesota in the seventies already..

    Kenneth KossanKenneth Kossan4 күн мурун
  • A CoP of 2.9 in ideal, test conditions? So a CoP of 1.0 at home if you're lucky.

    SergeantSergeant4 күн мурун
  • In the book of Isaac Asimov foundation, the planet Trentor was heated like that. He wrote it in the Nineteen fifties.

    Artur HArtur H4 күн мурун
  • Just an FYI about GSHP in urban areas. St. Patrick's Cathedral in NYC has installed a huge Ground Source Heat Pump System to provide ALL heating and cooling . The Abbey in Bath, England has also installed a Ground Source Heat Pump plant. Your information about Ground Source Heat Pump installs are not accurate!

    frank rizzofrank rizzo5 күн мурун
  • "Not rated for under 5 degrees." So, perfect for me here, in California, but this is still news to me!

    NightChimeNightChime5 күн мурун
    • I can say with all honesty, if you are in a part of the state that does sometimes, even rarely, get a cold snap have a backup heat source available. My family had mini-splits in our apartment in south-central Pennsylvania. Not an area of this state known for the type of cold and snow you see along Lake Erie or towards Pittsburgh or State College. But for those few days in the winter when the temperature would start hanging out perpetually in the 20's the units did almost nothing. If the temperature got below 15 they stopped working completely. We ended up supplementing the heat with an electric fireplace that doubled as an entertainment center.

      Jami BlankenshipJami Blankenship2 күн мурун
  • Future? I’ve had a heat pump since 1986

    Brad RyanBrad Ryan5 күн мурун
  • -8C is kind of too warm for most environments in the US. It gets much colder than that in winter.

    ErgzayErgzay5 күн мурун
  • Let me tell you something the new world order for a 100 years now have been making people believe they need sticks and bricks, know you need dirt you need the dirt to keep you warm you need the dirt to keep you cool , look up Michael Reynolds look up earthships, look up straw bale homes it look up. The truth green is the earth.

    WASH WOMEN 777WASH WOMEN 7776 күн мурун
  • You're a bit behind the curve on this since heat pumps have only been used for about 50 years now ! ! To present this as if it is recent development is ridiculous. Only a dolt would believe this is a notable subject. What next , are you going to tell us the new development of blending color of exterior machine unit to building color by using spray paint on their cabinets ? ? I have unit hidden by blending green spray painted exterior unit to match the green of the hedge that surrounds the perimeter. Entire house looks better this way . Is that also an item to make another useless video about ? Lose some weight , go get outside & do something useful without the need to bother anyone else .

    William Richard James NicholsonWilliam Richard James Nicholson6 күн мурун
  • This would be amazing in the uk! Why is nobody talking about this? This would be a big hit with newly built homes, since here it’s rarely freezing but heating is almost always required!

    Car Parking MultiplayerCar Parking Multiplayer6 күн мурун
    • Somehow the UK is always very late to adopt new building technologies- it seems that double glazing is still a new thing there! When I lived in Scotland, a local architect, who lived in Germany for a while in the 90s, was furious while telling me how British architects and builders are still building traditional looking houses with single glazing and hardly any heat insulation, and thus the occupants of these houses then have to turn up their gas heating high to stay warm. It's a good thing gas is cheap in the UK, but it won't be like that forever :/

      VykintasVykintas4 күн мурун
  • My dad is an electrician and refrigeration mechanic here in Australia, so I knew about reverse-cycle air conditioning from a broad overlook perspective, but this video went into a bunch of detail that I love! Thanks for being my favourite tech nerd youtuber!

    WantEpicMusicWantEpicMusic6 күн мурун
  • I absolutely love how educational your videos are and your angle on things but please work on making the videos shorter or a bit more energetic as it's not easy watching the entire video despite my interest in the topic May you always have more success

    Mahmoud EzzMahmoud Ezz6 күн мурун
  • boy he loves refrigeration

    Michael NasoMichael Naso6 күн мурун
  • Here in EU heat pumps are popular, especially with solar heat and electricity, as they allow you to scale down photovoltaic installation. You get quicker return on investment if you combine these three. Not to mention the reduction of emissions, which will be huge even if you rely on coal power. During the coldest days just run your cryptominer to keep you warm ;)

    Marcin KościelnyMarcin Kościelny6 күн мурун
  • The plucky cub partially carve because zone successively interest apropos a tricky mice. unable, anxious glockenspiel

    Davit prttersonDavit prtterson6 күн мурун
  • "Reverse the polarity of the refrigerant flow!"

    QuixoteQuixote6 күн мурун
  • my parents live in southern Canada, and they also have a heat pump that works quite well. They are really efficient!

    Munk PuppyMunk Puppy7 күн мурун
  • stronger pipes & valves with better coolants would allow this to work more efficiently in extreme weather conditions

    James JinJames Jin7 күн мурун
  • He's right, every winter I turn my window A/C unit around so the cold blows outside and the hot side is in my apartment.

    --7 күн мурун
  • This reminds me of a really cold day from school. I live in Australia, so we only used the ac to cool a room. So in this scenario, no one even thought to turn the ac on. A few teachers started bringing heaters in before someone said something lol.

    JetpackDinoJetpackDino7 күн мурун
  • That's about the clearest explanation of this subject I've heard. A very good video indeed!

    Rob SchofieldRob Schofield7 күн мурун
  • Hey! I know exactly were that is! Went to school at FRCC!

    Caleb ReetzCaleb Reetz7 күн мурун
  • how much did Pepsi give Pioneer to include there logo ;)

    Simon MunchSimon Munch7 күн мурун
  • Mini-splits.

    Sophie RobinsonSophie Robinson7 күн мурун
  • Rip the average winter day for me is -26c. Warm days are -17c cold days are -50c

    LolanLolan8 күн мурун
  • The Texas Big Freeze of 2020: I know of a large company that replaced their Propane based HVAC system with a heat pump system that was all electric, and guess which one failed, because Heat Pumps lose efficiency as the temperature drops? Sure, you can get add on electric elements for heat in the system, which works great, right up until either A) the power bill gets jacked up thousands of dollars, or B) the power goes out or into rolling blackouts, and regardless, you are still a slave to an electrical utility, and with the likely potential of higher bills even when working within 'normal' temps, or a blackout whenever they need it. With propane or natural gas, it's easier to run minimal systems with a backup generator of some sort. One of the owners who approved purchasing this technological trainwreck stated that they had researched it first.. on KGworld.

    MediaMatters IsMyCockHolsterMediaMatters IsMyCockHolster8 күн мурун
  • I'm getting a Tesla Model 3 soon-ish (month to a month and a half or so). And...guess what it has! The AC in the car is a reversible heat pump.

    StormsparkStormspark8 күн мурун
  • This connection of videos makes all of this science make more sense!

    Ian BenavidesIan Benavides8 күн мурун
  • Teletext video?

    Marcin DżamrogaMarcin Dżamroga8 күн мурун
  • My family recently built a house - as in in the last year - and we got an air source heat pump. Shits crazy

    lollopingnooblollopingnoob8 күн мурун
  • Why don’t carbonated beverages cool themselves as they decarbonate?

    Ed AtenEd Aten8 күн мурун
  • Your audio is decent, but please run it through the "de-esser" in audacity to kill some of that sharpness in your "s" sounds. When I turn volume up, there are major volume spikes on your s's and it's almost painful when the rest of the vocals are just nice and audible, not 'too' loud.

    Rolph FinkinRolph Finkin8 күн мурун
  • "What if I were to tell you that all of the energy you need to heat your home on a cold winter day could be found.. outside?" Me:Bullsh*t.

    Axe 001Axe 0018 күн мурун
  • As a payer of ridiculously high heating bills in Canada, this really caught my eye! So I googled it a bit... Here's what I got: For climates with moderate heating and cooling needs, heat pumps offer an energy-efficient alternative to furnaces and air conditioners. Like your refrigerator, heat pumps use electricity to move heat from a cool space to a warm space, making the cool space cooler and the warm space warmer. (As cold as it gets here, well it gets just as hot in the summer, not very moderate) Drawbacks of air-to-air heat pumps are: regular maintenance is required (cleaning the filter on the indoor unit) and a service check every 2-3 years. loss of efficiency as temperature decreases below 6-7ºC (but some models can still provide heating in temperatures down to -15ºC) (So in Canada, where winter temps get as low as -40C, this will require either another unit, or wood heat to take up the slack.) How much will my electric bill go up with a heat pump? $50 to $100 per month. (So I guess I won't be buying one, shucks!) Heat Pumps will raise your electricity bill - but lower your costs for other heating fuels. Each single unit (often referred to as a one-to-one) heat pump that is used daily will increase your electricity bill by $50 to $100 per month.

    George LoyieGeorge Loyie8 күн мурун
  • What a load of mumbo jumbo. It's against reason to think you could efficiently warm up your home with air that's a lot colder than the air indoors. Can't possibly work without using loads of electricity. It is most certainly not going to be more energy efficient than just burning gas onsite to fuel central heating.

    Withnail1969Withnail19698 күн мурун
  • Nice video. Less repetitive than others. But temperature is not the "concentration of energy." You can have boiling water, with the liquid and gas phases at 212 deg. F. Both are at the same temperature, but the concentration of energy is much higher in the liquid.

    betaneptunebetaneptune8 күн мурун
  • Any idea of the efficiency of that similar outside unit north of you? Next time i have to replace mine is certainly love to consider the option.

    BlackSmokeDMaxBlackSmokeDMax9 күн мурун
  • Okay I know you're all talking and stuff but I'm diggin' that sport jacket yes...yes, it's rather snazzy. A big huge gaudy yellow gold ring on your little finger . That's all that jacket needs. Come on. You know I'm right. A good CHUNK of gold, HEAVY. A ring that says stuff. Yes. A ring that makes people say "What the HELL man!?"

    Ken MasonKen Mason9 күн мурун
  • 2:11 I love the dubbing. I have seen movies with worse dubbing. "'Yippee Ki-Yay, Mr. Falcon" (done for American TV censorship, but some dubbing in theatrical releases was bad too)

    George HGeorge H9 күн мурун
  • 3:00 Welcome back to your chest freezer; star of an earlier video :)

    True RiverTrue River9 күн мурун
  • So its like a portable air conditioner which blows the hot exhaust air inside instead of out the window?

    hwd71hwd719 күн мурун
  • Incredible content, as usual. It’s rare to find such production quality filled with solid engineering knowledge. Definitely one of my favorites on YT.

    Rodrigo MaderaRodrigo Madera9 күн мурун
  • We have heat pumps in the UK. I used to work for a company that installed them underground.

    Tom TurnbullTom Turnbull9 күн мурун
  • In western MT I heat my 30x40 well insulated home with one of these heat pumps except for when it gets below around 5*F. I don't bother to use the air conditioning cycle in the summer as I just open the windows in the early morning and close up the home during the hot part of the day.

    OlTrailDogOlTrailDog9 күн мурун
  • Incredible, you managed to make me understand this. Wow, that is quite an accomplishment, thank you.

    PauleraBRPauleraBR9 күн мурун
  • meanwhile i'm watching this video with an axe near a pile of wood :))))

    Darius VarnoDarius Varno9 күн мурун
  • Why has no one made a refrigeration system and named it "Maxwell's Daemon" ???

    edgeeffectedgeeffect9 күн мурун
  • "Air conditioning has been standard in American homes for over 50 years." You are showing your privilege, here, son. Make that 30 years, and you would be correct.

    Lucky 13Lucky 139 күн мурун
  • ok, so does this mean when Tesla announced they put a heat pump into their Model 3 that they just added that little reverse valve and piping thingie? Because the rest was already there being the A/C system that comes as standard in basically every modern car. [edit] that's exactly what you point out in the next one, nice :) [/edit] Also the fact that this system can have an energy efficiency above 100% blew my mind.

    Ce1esCe1es9 күн мурун
  • The “future of home heating”? Really? Heat pumps have been around for a long time.

    Matthew ByrdMatthew Byrd9 күн мурун
  • I thought you lived in Orlando FL, I guess you moved up north

    adaptiveplexusadaptiveplexus9 күн мурун
  • What you propose is in Europe standard. MURICA f###k yeah!!

    muten861muten8619 күн мурун
  • This is an awful explanation of refrigeration.

    IronLion219IronLion2199 күн мурун
  • I had no idea I was interested in this stuff. Maybe I should go into the HVAC trade.

    DunwellDunwell10 күн мурун
  • What FLIR camera are you using?

    Steve LarsenSteve Larsen10 күн мурун
  • Wow. First up....those split air AC systems are getting retro fitted to many buildings in U.K.....such as workplaces, dentists, doctors surgeries. As for heat pumps, the aim of U.K. gov is to have all new buildings + replacement systems be heat pumps (or alt simply electric heating) in 10y from now. Currently most buildings are heated by gas - not the stuff you put in automobiles, but the gas they dig up from under the sea and pipe it to buildings. Are heat pumps really that reliable...seems to be lots of plumbing in the system.

    David RummingDavid Rumming10 күн мурун
  • 👍👍👍

    Walter BurtonWalter Burton10 күн мурун
  • Bepis 13:25

    Guilherme TrojanGuilherme Trojan10 күн мурун
  • I'm going to trade school for HVAC and Refrigeration. Its pretty cool seeing one of my favorite youtubers talking about it

    Human Sh!tpostHuman Sh!tpost10 күн мурун
  • Heat pumps have become a relatively commonplace method of heating homes in New Zealand.

    RR10 күн мурун
  • quick question, can we use electrolysis to build pressure without an electric motor? doesn't have to be electrolysis, all it has to do is be less energy intensive than running the compressor and cause out gassing.

    King MasterlordKing Masterlord10 күн мурун
  • Your mic eq really makes the S sound of your speech hurt my ears

    Yoda'sFreetimeIsSpentHereYoda'sFreetimeIsSpentHere10 күн мурун
  • In the Netherlands we have homes running sololey on heat pumps, no gas or electric backup. We use water-to-water heat pumps with heat recovery and (efficient) low temperature floorheating. Since ground water doesn't change too much over time; the heatpump is very effective all year through. Installation costs are pretty high; but to be connected to gas, you have to pay a monthly fee. Also; you're only using electricity and when combined with solar panels (and triple isolation); we can create practically '0 emission'. It really helps that the Netherlands doesn't have extremely harsh weather though, but water/water heatpumps will be much more effective in the US. Looking forward to part 2!

    xFuaZexFuaZe10 күн мурун
  • Soooooo, then the most efficient system would be to connect your gas burner to a small steam turbine, all kept inside so you don't waste heat, that produces electricity to run a heat pump XD

    TheVafTheVaf10 күн мурун
  • I think you explained it in a far more complicated way than possible.

    AYAN DASAYAN DAS10 күн мурун
  • What if someone made a heat pump that had something inside the house insulated with a high thermal mass that could be used to store heat. So when the heat pump is working at peak efficiency, it could store thermal energy for later.

    notanotherpyronotanotherpyro10 күн мурун
  • I like how that inverter's logo just casually incorporates the Pepsi logo.

    soap0688soap068810 күн мурун
  • All those problems can be solved by closing the alternative power plants and replacing them with clean and safe nuclear power.

    Joseph KeenanJoseph Keenan10 күн мурун
  • At 17:30 is that just a horrible photo or is that wall-mounted unit really that crooked?

    Phil MartinPhil Martin10 күн мурун
  • The card didn't get summoned 😭

    pafnutiytheartistpafnutiytheartist10 күн мурун
  • Its a lie....sure heat pumps are great in the southern US......but let's see it work in Minnesota in January.....It WONT trust me ...Ive been in HVAC FOR 30 YEARS !

    Fedupwithfed foreverFedupwithfed forever10 күн мурун
  • IAE bothered by the obviously not level outdoor unit ? Like no crits, TC, but that is driving me nuts lol.

    echo Awooecho Awoo10 күн мурун
  • Don't cars a/c systems do this?

    msr47gamingmsr47gaming10 күн мурун
  • best heat is gas heating. clean cheap, no worries

    Tomas Av.Tomas Av.10 күн мурун
  • N I C E

    Andrew LittlerAndrew Littler10 күн мурун
  • Greetings from Russia, the land of natural gas.

    SturmSturm10 күн мурун
  • .... Sold! I'll take it!

    Belle PullmanBelle Pullman10 күн мурун
  • fascinating stuff

    Aaron TalbotAaron Talbot10 күн мурун
  • Verbose refrigerator

    Timothy CrowtherTimothy Crowther10 күн мурун
  • I don't need to go to school after watching this 😄

    Amin Abu DahabAmin Abu Dahab10 күн мурун
  • Our company It is a scientific and technological enterprise specializing in the R & D, production, sales and service of solar energy, air source heat pump hot water, heating and refrigeration engineering systems. It is the development and cooperation unit of Zhejiang Energy Research Institute - new energy source. The company won the title of Hangzhou high-tech enterprise in 2010 and ultra-low in 2011 The warm air source heat pump unit project won the national science and technology small and medium-sized enterprise innovation fund project award, and won the new industrial product award of Zhejiang Province. Also we want to find some partners or agents,If you are interested, we can communicate this matter。my e-mail: fexur@foxmail.com

    汪波汪波10 күн мурун
  • Future? Like every other house has them where I live (New England).

    Alexandra KoretskyAlexandra Koretsky10 күн мурун