Gravitational Lensing

2020-ж., 20-окт.
1 373 778 Көрүүлөр

In 2015 astronomers successfully predicted the appearance of a supernova within a couple weeks. How did they do it? Win your Ultimate Tech Bundle by entering Fasthosts’ Techie Test here: fasthosts.com/veritasium (Competition now closed) This video was sponsored by Fasthosts.
Special thanks to Geraint Lewis for consulting on gravitational lensing. Check out his KGworld channel: ve42.co/gfl and books: ve42.co/GFLbooks
The supernova image in the thumbnail is from my documentary, Uranium: Twisting The Dragon's Tail. Check it out here: genepoolproductions.com/uranium-project
References:
DEJA VU ALL OVER AGAIN: THE REAPPEARANCE OF SUPERNOVA REFSDAL
P. L. Kelly et al. arxiv.org/abs/1512.04654
Predicted properties of multiple images of the strongly lensed supernova SN Refsdal
Masamune Oguri. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, Volume 449, Issue 1, 01 May 2015, Pages L86-L89, arxiv.org/abs/1411.6443
Multiple Images of a Highly Magnified Supernova Formed by an Early-Type Cluster Galaxy Lens
Patrick L. Kelly et al. arxiv.org/abs/1411.6009
"Refsdal" meets Popper: comparing predictions of the re-appearance of the multiply imaged supernova behind MACSJ1149.5+2223. T. Treu et al. arxiv.org/abs/1510.05750
Irwin I. Shapiro (1964). "Fourth Test of General Relativity". Physical Review Letters. 13 (26): 789-791. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.13.789
Irwin I. Shapiro; Gordon H. Pettengill; Michael E. Ash; Melvin L. Stone; et al. (1968). "Fourth Test of General Relativity: Preliminary Results". Physical Review Letters. 20 (22): 1265-1269. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.20.1265
Research & Writing by Stephanie Hamilton, Ralph Crewe, Petr Lebedev, Derek Muller, and Jonny Hyman
Animations & VFX by Jonny Hyman & Ivàn Tello
Thanks to Jaime Portsmouth for his gravitational lensing simulator and help enabling it to render simulations.
Supernova simulations courtesy of Adam Burrows
Numerous hubble images by Hubble Legacy Archive, NASA/ESA/STScI
Numerous images by ESO / NASA

Жорумдар
  • Incredible video and fascinating! It's always surprising how good scientists are at figuring things out!

    DANG JOSDANG JOS6 саат мурун
  • Erwin Shapiro_:_Ben Shapiro?

    Czesław Władysław Wielgus MarynowskiCzesław Władysław Wielgus Marynowski12 саат мурун
  • Greetings from Entropy

    Jock GravesJock Graves17 саат мурун
  • Which artist do you want to drop an album right now?

    Taxpayer julietTaxpayer juliet23 саат мурун
  • 9:36, I understand he didn't cover thus due to maybe its complexity, but how do we know some of the stars absolute luminosity?

    ஆகாஷ் - AKASH. SIVAH.ஆகாஷ் - AKASH. SIVAH.Күн мурун
  • 6:24 😏

    Kevin MeriolesKevin MeriolesКүн мурун
  • The reverb of the small recording room is made more obvious by the background outdoor scene.

    mdu2112mdu2112Күн мурун
  • Nice video. Unfortunately a slight error: you mentioned the a contribution to the time-delay comes from the fact that the wide-angled rays travelled further than the shallow-angled rays, but this is false. The reason why the rays "bend" is because the speed of propagation changes and thus causing the wavefront to curve, and as a result the optical path length (and hence delay) is the same regardless which path is taken. This of course neglects dispersion and time-dilation and assumes perfect imaging. As the time-dilation in our own solar system showed, I presume that is the dominant effect for the time-delay.

    Adam WyattAdam WyattКүн мурун
  • Megaparsec is so cool to say

    Bijan IzadiBijan IzadiКүн мурун
  • Do one thing tell the person on Mars to send his time and blast Mars at the same time (Assuming it takes 20 mins for light to travel from earth to mars and instantaneous for light to travel from mars to earth ) Earth send message at 12 :10 Mars recieves at 12 :30 but the person thinks it is at 12 :20 and send a message that the time is 12:20 and instantaneously blast Mars Now if earth saw mars in real time earth will see Mars blast at 12 :30 and earth will also receive a message that it is 12: 20 and hence proved that the previous assumption was correct that it takes 20mins for the light to go to mars and instantaneously comes back to earth

    Adwaith ReddyAdwaith ReddyКүн мурун
  • Gravitational lensing blows my mind. "Oh, those four galaxies you can see over there? Yeah, they're the same one..." Madness.

    邹捷邹捷2 күн мурун
  • Is it possible that some of those celestial objects that we observed so far have gone through so many "layers" of gravitational lensing that what we are looking at might be in the direction of other side of the earth?

    ImpactoDelSur EnterpriseImpactoDelSur Enterprise2 күн мурун
  • INCREDIBLE CARS AND INVENTIONS OF THE NEXT GENERATION www.youtube.com/watch?v=MGfn-...

    random emailrandom email2 күн мурун
  • Dear chat and @Veritasium can black give rise to star or explode to create new stars. Is this possible. Plz help

    MickMick2 күн мурун
  • Spacetime be like: But, will it bend?

    Adobe ReviewsAdobe Reviews2 күн мурун
  • I wonder how we can be sure all our cosmological conclusions and theories can be true if everything we can observe is based on the electromagnetic spectrum we get through our different kinds of detecting instruments and at same time we know that all these objects in the sky are no longer where we locate them and also that their emitted EM waves are all distorted and scattered during their so long journeys to reach us “ now “

    Amedeo FilippiAmedeo Filippi2 күн мурун
  • I cant even visualise that when a supernova explodes, in less than a second tens of thousands of miles of matter and gas covers the surrounding space.

    ryuhjn yguhryuhjn yguh3 күн мурун
  • Mind blown… again

    Pax WebbPax Webb3 күн мурун
  • Theoretically let's say you could teleport anywhere instantaneously and no matter where you were you could survive for a set amount of time if you traveled somewhere off in the distance of space and looked at earth would that be considered time travel because you are looking at light that has been reflected off the earth in the past now traveling to the planet you are on

    Shay DetertShay Detert4 күн мурун
  • 6:29 *:)*

    Aaron GayodAaron Gayod4 күн мурун
  • Can you make a video on Super Symmetry please???

    Akash GuptaAkash Gupta4 күн мурун
  • ....so part time-machine-like observation ..?... to see time like this makes you wonder. If time is this "easy "to watch how can we " put some tools to it" so we can use it in different way's. B.D.W is it : Hawkeye .....lol.

    MrLaTEchno Reality,Stop Fake News.MrLaTEchno Reality,Stop Fake News.5 күн мурун
  • I have long waited for a mind blow like this. thank you for granting me such a treasure

    Weiss MerlinWeiss Merlin6 күн мурун
  • "Hey there's a new supernova on that galaxy! Never mind, it's just the same galaxy's lensed pic delayed due to gravity".

    AstropjAstropj6 күн мурун
  • The universal equivalent of a photo bomb

    Julian HarleyJulian Harley6 күн мурун
  • so well explained.

    9B 34 Dominic9B 34 Dominic7 күн мурун
  • Einstein?

    RIZE RenNerdClubRIZE RenNerdClub8 күн мурун
  • *BeetleJuice, BeetleJuice, BeetleJu-*

    JustMoseyinAroundJustMoseyinAround8 күн мурун
    • derek: einstien's concept my brain: salt and pepper

      Taxpayer julietTaxpayer juliet23 саат мурун
  • About a year to late. On astronomy I had to write a paper about Gravitational lensing. Good thing your video about Black Hole and how it looks like helped. I even linked than video in that.

    pokfenpokfen8 күн мурун
  • I'm absolutely goob smacked!

    ronkirk50ronkirk508 күн мурун
  • WIth this information we should be able to create a concrete equation on how much our movement is effecting redshift, why do we not see this equation when calculating the Hobble Constant?

    SutairnSutairn8 күн мурун
  • any day now ... *in the next 100,000 years*

    Jacob SawyerJacob Sawyer9 күн мурун
  • I'm on this guys wavelength so frickn happy you made this rite on man

    Bo ReedBo Reed9 күн мурун
  • Do galaxies revolves around some things?🤔

    SKM GAMERSKM GAMER10 күн мурун
  • Looks like the supernova came to bargain.

    h.s.mani deeph.s.mani deep10 күн мурун
  • 1:40 "In the next hundred THOUSAND years." :(

    Big DogoBig Dogo10 күн мурун
  • Gravitational lensing blows my mind. "Oh, those four galaxies you can see over there? Yeah, they're the same one..." Madness.

    Big DogoBig Dogo10 күн мурун
  • What I thought of this ?? Wowweee... please teach me how did they measure the trajectories and times so accurately.... what math is behind this?? If they published a paper??

    Sourav DeySourav Dey10 күн мурун
  • One of my favorites video! Thank you so much

    Alberto MalvidoAlberto Malvido11 күн мурун
  • "In 2015 astronomers successfully predicted the appearance of a supernova within a couple weeks." Technically, that was not successfully predicted a supernova(the event happened at the end life circle of the star far far away), just predicted what image(what we would see from the Earth) the Hubble telescope would get according to the video, which were two different things. Am i right?😉😉😉😉

    GplayerGplayer11 күн мурун
    • That's the actual image. Yes, it already happened and we are only seeing it now. Not exactly a prediction but it takes time for information to pass.

      Wandering DustWandering Dust8 күн мурун
  • He said stars in nearby universe by mistake. Lol 9:31

    Makaveli ThedonMakaveli Thedon12 күн мурун
  • Where’s the universe expanding FROM?

    Diego FerreyraDiego Ferreyra12 күн мурун
  • We are so lucky to have Einsten

    a ba b12 күн мурун
  • This is incredible. I don't know what else to say.

    Unknown ProdigyUnknown Prodigy12 күн мурун
  • Makes you realize space is mind blowingly massive.

    Reuben SternReuben Stern12 күн мурун
  • A long time ago In a galaxy far far away?... Proof of Darth sidius and his death star.

    Reuben SternReuben Stern12 күн мурун
  • Einstein cross Jesus Christ!

    arnav soodarnav sood12 күн мурун
  • Soo... Does it mean that if we have a telescope sharp enough to see individual planet on galaxies far far away, and strong enough to catch light reflected from earth, we can technically see our past?

    Yuda DwiYuda Dwi12 күн мурун
  • Good hosting, not everyday i see.

    James BlackstarJames Blackstar12 күн мурун
  • A lens made of "graveity". Yeah right, what sorcery is this? Gravity doesn't even existt

    JebClangJebClang13 күн мурун
  • We can predict a supernova but not corona?

    Denzyl CasuelaDenzyl Casuela13 күн мурун
    • Maybe because universe changes but very slowly compared to it's size, when viruses mutate fast, thus we can't predict all mutations.

      Maciej CholewaMaciej Cholewa13 күн мурун
  • I wish i was not in a city so i could see this rare phenomenon

    Harish DubeyHarish Dubey13 күн мурун
  • This is the most surprising video I have seen in my life! It got me Goosebumps! Humans are incredible to have discovered this!

    klaas victorklaas victor13 күн мурун
  • The previous video title was more juicy, at least I feel

    Bhaskar BhardwajBhaskar Bhardwaj14 күн мурун
  • Amazing

    WillianWillian14 күн мурун
  • absolutely adoreable to be able to work on such topics!

    PanarborePanarbore14 күн мурун
  • So...The flat earthers are not wrong! They are right in another perspective

    Rama BandyopadhyayRama Bandyopadhyay15 күн мурун
  • Your videos are lit 👍🏻

    Mohd SameerMohd Sameer15 күн мурун
  • Thank you! Ah...I thought it will be about building a lens for a gravity laser. But this is very interesting too.

    Andrey SergeevAndrey Sergeev15 күн мурун
  • Meanwhile supernovas image giving us a creepy smile at 6:25

    Phantomrocks #phaniPhantomrocks #phani15 күн мурун
  • Can anyone tell me how light is traveling in a curved path..I have learned that light travels in straight line.

    yogesh jangidyogesh jangid15 күн мурун
    • I don't know what does really moving straight means but let's say it is moving while being not affected (accelerated) by any force. That means nothing is changing the momentum of a photon I guess. I would naively say that light indeed travels in a straight line through space but if you bend space itself then that line is no longer straight. Photons have no mass - gravity does not pull them as regular objects with mass. The gravity is bending space and time therefore anything in that space is bent too. You can draw a straight line on a paper sheet then crumple that paper - so the line will be straight relative to the paper but not to the world around it. That way path of light is curved. That means that the direction of a photon is changed - so its momentum. So I will guess you need to spend some gravitational energy on that. But what is the least possible degree of that curvature? That I don't know. If you look at curved lines on a display they are made from pixels - so any circle is in fact a sum of small straight segments. If that is the case for space curving then there are always some parts of space where light indeed travels in a straight line - because it can't be affected by any force. If not then you can arrange a bending of any degree at any place so it's not necessary to have any straight segments at all.

      Andrey SergeevAndrey Sergeev15 күн мурун
  • Wait til' the UK viewers find out that the 5000 pound Techie Bundle actually weighs 5000 pounds (

    John BerryJohn Berry15 күн мурун
  • it was Isaac Newton.

    Mahmoud MostafaMahmoud Mostafa15 күн мурун
  • when my boss catches me in a foto somewhere else..can i explain that its perhaps gravitational lensing...both time and place r incorrect..i was actually working at home ;)

    DevNDevN15 күн мурун
  • and millions of people r convinced they know it all from 1 holy book.

    DevNDevN15 күн мурун
  • It sucks

    Trying1 /Trying1 /16 күн мурун
  • amazing !!!!

    Ryan JohnstoneRyan Johnstone16 күн мурун
  • This just reinforces a question I have had for over 10 years. Using the discipline of the null hypothesis prove to me that every galaxy you see in the cosmos isn't the same galaxy seen from a different angle at a different time? The cosmos as a hall of mirrors.

    Chris MethotChris Methot16 күн мурун
    • The first answer might be how could we see galaxies merging if there were only one.

      Chris MethotChris Methot13 күн мурун
  • Gravitational lensing is one of my favourite concepts!! And this is amazing!!! Loved the way the video is made. Seemed like we are in space!!!🌌

    Kinnari BhaleraoKinnari Bhalerao16 күн мурун
  • Space has always been an inspiration for me. Hubble is fascinating my heart day by day.

    Muhammad Hamza TahirMuhammad Hamza Tahir16 күн мурун
  • Star: Betelgeuse Me: Be tel gese Veritasium: Bettle Juice

    Gabriel FerrãoGabriel Ferrão16 күн мурун
  • Its incredible how much info scientists can extract from these tiny little smears of light

    FezRezFezRez16 күн мурун
  • 1:32 beetlejuice

    Wu ChenglinWu Chenglin17 күн мурун
  • It's fascinating that how much information astronomers can get from pictures, from a normal person, not so much.

    Prince Fel Ezekiel R. LicardoPrince Fel Ezekiel R. Licardo17 күн мурун
  • And here I struggle getting a decent pic of my dog.

    Dennis DDennis D17 күн мурун
  • Is this one of the first generation stars in the universe ?

    Nae DolorNae Dolor17 күн мурун
  • Great video Derek, thank you for teaching me so many interesting things! By the way, I'm just thinking... I've been following you since 2013. Most of my closest friends I've known for less time than that. And your videos continue to amaze me! Take care Derek, and keep up the excellent work! (no pressure :-)

    David M. JohnstonDavid M. Johnston17 күн мурун
  • did you break the space time continuum? no worries, just seal it with FLEX TAPE! *slaps tape on spacetime*

    Learning UnityLearning Unity17 күн мурун
  • Only Legends Know the Title of This Video Has Been Changed

    穆罕默德·扎恩穆罕默德·扎恩17 күн мурун
  • I love your videos! You make them entertaining and you have a catchy voice.

    Mr. Thomas A. AndersonMr. Thomas A. Anderson17 күн мурун
  • Varitasium and 3brown1 blue are best ones also PBS videos too

    Soumen BhattacharyaSoumen Bhattacharya17 күн мурун
  • Does this mean that light can «move» an object aswell? Like airflow over a wing creating lift?

    Fredrik Attila FarkasFredrik Attila Farkas17 күн мурун
    • You can push stuff with light. There's the idea of "light sails", large reflective structures that can be put on a probe or satellite of some kind and allow it to use the solar wind. And last year or the year before that the nobel prize in physics got awarded to a team who created a kind of "tweezers" with light.

      LünkelLünkel6 күн мурун
  • 3:48 Damn that looks creepy lmao

    Mohammed ShaikMohammed Shaik17 күн мурун
  • This is mindblowing sorta. Also makes me feel incredicle dumb compared to actual smart people. I knew math was important and read electronics in high school so did alot of math. But counting math that bends light by gravity and mass vs distance and time to the object and beeing able to count that far back including by my guess a ton of gravity bends/warps between stars, galaxies of the fabric of space, with an end result of different years and times to the day, which you can view the same exact thing happening. 🤯 Now thats some hardcore math right there.🧠 Also how isnt Einstein an Emoji by now. 😎✌

    Balubish TechBalubish Tech18 күн мурун
  • Oh its such crap.

    seachangeauseachangeau18 күн мурун
  • Wow, this really opens your mind! It’s like taking drugs OMG. Loved it!

    Jimmy JohnsJimmy Johns18 күн мурун
  • 6:29 Seems deep space is smiling on us!..with a cigarette in its mouth! 😵

    Mohd ShariqMohd Shariq18 күн мурун
  • What if, as the universe expands, the general speed of light increases? Meaning, if we had a window into the future we would observe everything moving faster. This does not affect the Doppler shift, which only cares about the 'stretching out' of light as it moves, since all 'parts' of light will be speeding up at the same time so there will be no differential that would be evidenced in the color shift. However it may 'speed up' other observable cosmic activity, meaning light reaches us faster than expected if it were moving at a 'constant' speed. Therefore the calculated expansion rate of some methods gives a lower result.

    Lar Wor TsomvLar Wor Tsomv18 күн мурун
  • Am I still on time to answer the question? Which is actually wrong it was Sir Isaac Newton who answered to RICHARD BENTLEY (theologian and philologist) “That gravity should be innate, inherent, and essential to matter, so that one body may act upon another at a distance through a vacuum, without the mediation of anything else, by and through which their action and force may be conveyed from one to another, is to me so great an absurdity that I believe no man who has in philosophical matters a competent faculty of thinking can ever fall into it. Gravity must be caused by an agent acting constantly according to certain laws; but whether this agent be material or immaterial, I have left open to the consideration of my readers” this was in answer to And what Richard Bentley wrote that generated Sir Isaac Newton’s answer was And as for gravitation, tis impossible that that should either be coeternal and essential to matter, or ever acquired by it. Not essential and coeternal to matter; for then even our system would have been eternal (if gravity could form it) against our atheist's supposition and what we have proved in our last. For let them assign any given time, that matter convened from a chaos into our system, they must affirm that before the given time matter gravitated eternally without convening, which is absurd. {Sir, I make account, that your courteous suggestion by your last, that a chaos is inconsistent with the hypothesis of innate gravity, is included in this paragraph of mine.} and again, tis unconceivable, that inanimate brute matter should (without a divine impression) operate upon and affect other matter without mutual contact: as it must, if gravitation be essential and inherent in it.

    raedtrabraedtrab19 күн мурун
  • Gravitational lens smears images from Hubble telescope. What is the cure for distortion? Apart from making intelligent assumptions/guesses, there seems to be no other method to give a clearer image.

    Kumar Digvijay MishraKumar Digvijay Mishra19 күн мурун
  • The Real Question: How do scientists notice a tiny dot of a star in the middle of so many blurs and other stars?!

    sokin jonsokin jon19 күн мурун
    • “You will be able to see beetle juice’s supernova” Me: “Hmm”

      ryuhjn yguhryuhjn yguh3 күн мурун
    • Generally, you can find the difference between two consecutive images by subtracting one from the other. Everything that's the same cancels, and only the changes remain. Also, in the case of the supernova in the video, they were expecting it to appear in a specific location.

      Michael PolakowskiMichael Polakowski6 күн мурун
    • They don't. No, but with the power of modern technology, devoted people, and some of the smartest people on the globe many things are possible.

      A GA G10 күн мурун
    • Unstoppable curiosity does it all...I am more surprised to know that there is actually stuff like time dilation.5 years out from physics and I thought it is all theoretical.Guess that's why flat earthers still exit.Might be of my kind:)

      Aadil PeerAadil Peer10 күн мурун
    • It’s their passion... they love to do that.. isn’t that amazing??

      Sourav DeySourav Dey10 күн мурун
  • I want to live hundreds of years to observe and study all the knowledge in universe. Sadly humans life span isn't long enough for such thing. I want to discover new planets, understand what is behind this universe. I don't wanna die without knowing why I was here.

    ilkercan Kayailkercan Kaya19 күн мурун
  • Veritasium pumping out superlative quality content is one of the rare positive things about 2020 - How do they do it? That's the real mystery

    Amadley GamingAmadley Gaming19 күн мурун
  • Gravitational lensing maybe a misinterpretation, this lensing could also be produced by cosmic space, becaused *space is not completely empty-it is a hard vacuum containing a low density of particles, predominantly a plasma of hydrogen and helium.* It is the space medium itself that causes this light refraction phenomena. Then it becomes understandable that galaxies tend to form a higher density of this space medium ( Halo) , which produces the lensing effect, and has nothing to do with gravitational fields.

    Ruben Anthony MartinezRuben Anthony Martinez19 күн мурун
    • So here is a neat trick folks! This will help you understand the universe and that Big Bang everyone keeps babbling on about. Take a stone, throw it in the pool, watch the rippl

      sokin jonsokin jon19 күн мурун
  • 30 October 2020 - I started to study stars and supernova. 14 November 2020 (today) I am watching this video. 11 December 2020 is my birthday. Now skip to 2:30

    Gagandeep SinghGagandeep Singh19 күн мурун
  • I don't know why I just thought of this question weeks after the video, but if gravitational lensing can allow us to see the same light source appear at multiple points and over different time periods, how can we know a lot of what we see in the sky isn't lensed from somewhere or someWHEN else? We would be counting some of the pinpoints of light in the sky multiple times, skewing our data right?

    CyberBeast66CyberBeast6619 күн мурун
  • Space time would seem to not be homogenous in the universe thus various gravitational lensing effects.

    Ry V.Ry V.19 күн мурун
  • 6:30 creepy smiley face

    Ayoub BerradaAyoub Berrada19 күн мурун
  • My brain hurts now

    Charles RogersCharles Rogers20 күн мурун
  • He is cool🤯

    MH PromitMH Promit20 күн мурун
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